Fast Home Remedies of preventing cold that you must know

Colds are very common. The common cold is transmitted by infected airborne droplets or by direct contact with infected secretions. A visit to your health care provider’s office is often not needed, and colds usually get better in 3 to 4 days. A cold is an upper respiratory infection caused by any one of hundreds of different viruses. Unfortunately, scientists haven’t figured out how to wipe out these viruses. The body has to rely on its own natural defenses.

cold

 

During a cold, virus particles penetrate the mucous layer of the nose and throat and attach themselves to cells there. The viruses punch holes in the cell membranes, allowing viral genetic material to enter the cells. The common cold is a self-limited disease that can generally be managed at home. The common cold has no cure, and there is no available vaccine.

Common symptoms of a cold include:

Most people with a common cold can be diagnosed by their signs and symptoms. If your doctor suspects you have a bacterial infection or other condition, he or she may order a chest X-ray or other tests to exclude other causes of your symptoms.

  • Fever and chills
  • Headache
  • Sore muscles
  • Fatigue
  • Cough
  • Nasal symptoms, such as stuffiness, runny nose, yellow or green snot
  • Sneezing
  • Sore throat

How Colds are Spread?

The cold virus can take many routes to its ultimate destination — your cells. Most people are contagious a day before and two to four days after their symptoms start. Here are the typical ways a cold virus is spread:

Touching someone who has the virus (such as shaking hands) or something that contains the virus (such as touching a doorknob or grocery cart). The virus can live for three hours on skin and objects. Once the virus is passed to your skin, it’s a simple matter for it to be transported to your own mucus membranes — for example, when you rub your eye, eat finger foods, or touch your nose. That’s why it’s important to wash your hands thoroughly and frequently, especially before eating.
Inhaling the virus through airborne transmission. It may sound implausible, but if someone sitting next to you sneezes while you are inhaling, voila! It’s likely you’ll get a cold.

Home remedies:

1. Drink plenty of fluids:

Get plenty of fluids. It helps break up your congestion, makes your throat moist, and keeps you from getting dehydrated.

Most people should drink at least eight to 10 8-ounce glasses of fluid every day. Need ideas for something to drink? Try water, sports drinks, herbal teas, fruit drinks, or ginger ale. Your mother’s chicken soup might help, too!

2. Blow Your Nose:

It’s better than sniffling mucus back into your head. But make sure you do it the right way. If you blow hard, you’ll send germ-carrying phlegm back into your ear passages, which can lead to an earache. Press a finger over one nostril while you blow gently to clear the other.

3. Spice Tea:

Spice tea is a highly beneficial Ayurvedic remedy to get rid of common cold. Dry roast and grind a quarter cup of coriander seeds, one a half tablespoons each of cumin and fennel seeds, and a quarter teaspoon of fenugreek seeds. Now, boil a cup of water. Add one and a half tablespoon of this spice powder and one and a half teaspoon of rock candy (misri). Let it simmer for three to four minutes. Add two tablespoons of milk. Bring the solution to a boil and then strain it. Sip it slowly while it is hot. Drink this spice tea daily until the symptoms subside.

4. Red Onion:

Those suffering from a cold can get relief from homemade red onion syrup. To make the syrup, you will need red onions and honey or brown sugar. Slice two to three red onions horizontally. Put one slice of onion in a bowl and add raw honey. Repeat the process until the bowl is full. Cover the bowl and leave it for 12 to 15 hours. When you open the bowl, there will be thick liquid like syrup. Drink a spoonful of the syrup several times a day to get relief from sore throats and other symptoms of a cold.

5. Rest and hydration:

Resting helps your body fight the invading virus. One of the most common symptoms is fatigue, so you’ll need the extra down time anyway. Ingesting water, tea, and soups is a great way to stay hydrated. When you have a cold your body uses a lot of fluid to fight the infection and produce nasal fluids. This means that you’ll need to hydrate more than you would on a normal day.

Special point:

Many painkillers and decongestants are available from pharmacies without a prescription. They’re generally safe for older children and adults to take, but might not be suitable for babies, young children, pregnant women, people with certain underlying health conditions, and those taking certain other medications. Speak to a pharmacist if you’re unsure.

Cholesterol- Causes, symptoms, prevention from high cholesterol

Cholesterol is a fatty steroid that is essential to the healthy functioning of the body. Most cholesterol is produced in the liver (the rest is taken in through the diet) and is released into the bloodstream where it is carried to body cells via LDLs (low-density lipoproteins). Cholesterol is found in every cell of the body and has important natural functions. It is manufactured by the body but can also be taken in from food. It is waxy and fat-like in appearance.

 

cholesterol

  • Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your coronary arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. Eventually, an area of plaque can rupture (break open). This causes a blood clot to form on the surface of the plaque. If the clot becomes large enough, it can mostly or completely block blood flow through a coronary artery.

 

  • A total serum cholesterol level is considered to be high if it measures above 200 mg/dl as it is considered to increase the risk of heart disease. However, it is not enough to look only at the total cholesterol level — the ratio of HDL and LDL is considered just as important in determining risk for heart disease. In a nutshell, even if the total cholesterol is slightly elevated, the higher the HDL and the lower the LDL reading, the lower the risk of heart disease.

 

  • High serum cholesterol levels are one of the leading factors in heart disease and have been linked with high blood pressure, colon polyps, breast and prostate cancer, impotence and gallstones.

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Causes:

Two kinds of lipoproteins carry cholesterol throughout your body: low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Having healthy levels of both types of lipoproteins is important.

  • LDL cholesterol :

LDL cholesterol sometimes is called “bad” cholesterol. A high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries. (Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to your body.) H

  • DL cholesterol :

DL cholesterol sometimes is called “good” cholesterol. This is because it carries cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. Your liver removes the cholesterol from your body.

Symptoms:

There are no symptoms for high cholesterol so many people are unaware they have it. The only way to find out is to have a blood test.

Foods to lower high cholesterol:

  • Olive oil:

Olive oil, especially of the extra-virgin variety, continues to be praised as a heart-healthy food item. A staple in the Mediterranean diet, olive oil contains monounsaturated fat, which has been shown to help maintain healthy cholesterol. Olive oil is great to cook with and can also be added on top of dishes like salad, making it easy to incorporating into your diet.

  • Spinach:

If it was good enough for Popeye, it’s good enough for you! The vintage cartoon character probably has some amazing cholesterol numbers because of all the spinach he consumed. Its key nutrient not only goes to support vision health, but can prevent clogging of the arteries.

  • Chocolate:

If you’re looking to help your cholesterol, go ahead and enjoy the good stuff. Of course, chocolate should be enjoyed in moderation and the darker variety is better for you. In a 2007 study participants who consumed cocoa powder saw a 24 percent increase in HDL (good cholesterol) levels.

  • Oats:

Eat a better breakfast. In another study participants consumed oats for breakfast, and researchers saw a decrease in their LDL cholesterol by 5.3 percent. The best part? It only took six weeks! If you’re not into oats, then we suggest any other high-fiber food item; fiber is key when you are trying to lower your cholesterol.

  • Beans:

Similar to oats, beans contain fiber, which can help with cholesterol. Arizona State University Polytechnic uncovered that half a cup of beans is enough to see a reduction in LDL cholesterol by at least eight percent.

Exercise to lower cholesterol:

  • Aside from enjoying a healthy diet, we can also use exercise as a means of lowering cholesterol. Generally speaking, all forms of physical activity can help improve cholesterol and overall health. Below we have outlined a few examples, so you will have a few exercise ideas in mind.

  • Brisk walking: Walking is the easiest form of exercise because we do it anytime we need to get from one place to another. The key is devoting a set amount of time to brisk walking – that is a slightly elevated pace. This will ensure you are using your heart more.

  • Devoting 30 minutes a day to brisk walking can work wonders on your cholesterol. If you don’t have the time, don’t fret – splitting your exercise regime in three 10-minute sections is still beneficial.

 

  • Jogging: Depending on your fitness level and abilities, you can take your brisk walking even further and turn it into a jog to help your cholesterol even more. Jogging requires more from the heart and lungs, creating a bigger burst of blood flow throughout the body. You can also burn more calories and fat this way. This is essential for lowering cholesterol because being overweight is a contributing factor in hypercholesterolemia.

 

  • A medicine to lower your cholesterol level, usually with a statin medicine. No matter what your current cholesterol level, treatment is advised. There are several different statin medicines. They work by blocking a chemical (enzyme) which is needed to make cholesterol in the liver. See separate leaflet called Statins and Other Lipid-lowering Medicines for more details.

 

  • There is no actual target level for people who do not already have cardiovascular disease. However, for those who do have a cardiovascular disease, the aim, if possible, is to reduce TChol to less than 4.0 mmol/L and LDL cholesterol to less than 2.0 mmol/L.

Fast Facts About Malnutrition that you must know

  • “Malnutrition” is a condition that results from an inadequate or excessive intake of nutrients. Obesity caused by excessive intake of refined carbohydrates and fat, is also a form of malnutrition which is more common in industrialised countries, but recent studies have shown that this ‘western’ problem is now seeping into the developing nations leading to the situation of a “double burden” of under- and over-nutrition.


mulnutrition
  • Malnutrition also entails conditions where diet does not contain the right balance of nutrients. This might mean a diet high on calories but deficient in vitamins and minerals. These second group of individuals may be overweight or obese but are still considered malnourished. Thus being malnourished does not always mean that the person is underweight or thin.

 

  • Malnutrition is caused by having an inadequate diet or a problem absorbing nutrients from food. There are many reasons why these might happen, including having reduced mobility, a long-term health condition, or a low income.

 

  • Two billion people in the world suffer from various forms of malnutrition.
    Malnutrition is an underlying cause of death of 2.6 million children each year – a third of child deaths globally.

 

  • Poor diet may lead to a vitamin or mineral deficiency, among other essential substances, sometimes resulting in scurvy – a condition where an individual has a vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency.

 

  • Though scurvy is a very rare disease, it still occurs in some patients – usually elderly people, alcoholics, or those that live on a diet devoid of fresh fruits and vegetables. Similarly, infants or children who are on special or poor diets for any number of economic or social reasons may be prone to scurvy.

 

  • 1 in 4 of the world’s children are stunted 4; in developing countries this is as high as one in three. This means their bodies fail to develop fully as a result of malnutrition.

 

  • Undernutrition accounts for 11 per cent of the global burden of disease and is considered the number one risk to health worldwide.

Types:

There are 2 types of malnutrition:
  • Primary malnutrition – occurs in parts of the world wherein most of its population is undernourished because of famine, poverty and limited crop production. This affects mostly children in underdeveloped countries.
    Secondary malnutrition is the result of an underlying disease which includes: eating disorder like anorexia or bulimia, cancer etc which can eventually cause malnutrition because of the inability to digest food or absorb the nutrients derived from food. People who have an alcohol or drug addiction may lose interest in food, which can lead to severe malnutrition.

 

  • How Is Malnutrition Related to COPD?
    Malnutrition can be a complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Why does this occur?

One reason is because people who have dyspnea, or difficulty breathing, have a great deal of trouble completing a meal. The hallmark symptom of COPD is difficulty breathing.
COPD also can make people feel as if they don’t have any appetite at all. This can cause malnutrition in several different ways, including:
  • causing food intake that’s not adequate, and
  • limiting or eliminating one or more important vitamins in the diet
  • In those with COPD, malnutrition is associated with weakness, loss of muscle tone, and weight loss. Evidence is mixed on whether it also leads to poorer pulmonary function and more COPD exacerbations.

Symptoms of Malnutrition:

Symptoms of malnutrition can vary, from mild to very severe. General symptoms include:
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Weight loss
  • Extreme lack of energy
  • Weakened immune system
In one study of COPD patients, women had worse nutritional status than men, and people who lived alone had worse nutritional status than those who lived with other people.

What Causes Malnutrition?

Malnutrition could arise from many factors. While sub-nutrition among the poor, mostly arises due to unavailability of proper nutritious food, the over nutrition could be an aftermath of sedentary lifestyle or health conditions, such as the improper functioning of the thyroid gland or PCOD.
Here is a glimpse into what you could term as the triggers of malnutrition:
1. Lack of a Balanced Diet:
Malnutrition in children is caused due to the lack of a nutritious and balanced diet. In countries where poverty prevails, people don’t consume essential nutrients like proteins, carbohydrates, fats in their daily meal. Hence, malnutrition is mostly observed in children from poverty-stricken areas. People who have limited knowledge about nutrition are often seen following an unhealthy diet. This doesn’t contain the required nutrients, vitamins and minerals, and leads to malnutrition.
2. Indigestible and Harmful Diet:
Indigestible and harmful diets can be among the major malnutrition causes. Children from rich families consume expensive food items that are indigestible and harmful. These food items can cause lack of hunger, leading to malnutrition. Loss of appetite can cause many diseases like cancer, liver or kidney disease, chronic infections, tumors, depressive illness, including malnutrition.
3. Lack of a Regulated Diet:
Irregular intake of food can cause malnutrition. Breakfast, lunch, and dinner must always be taken at a proper time. Irregular timing of meals can cause indigestion and malnutrition.
4. Dirty Environment:
A dirty environment at home or in the school is one of the basic causes of malnutrition. The home and school environment tend to become dirty when it lacks fresh and pure air, sunlight, playground, clean lanes. This hampers the required nutrition of children. Those children who are made to work in glass factories, leather industries, brick industries, etc. have to face a dirty, unhygienic and unhealthy environment. This can lead to malnourishment in children.
5. Lack of Sound Sleep and Rest:
Low space and a suffocating bedroom can hamper the sleep of the child. Excess homework and watching television till late hours can also cause lack of sleep. This results in indigestion and causes malnutrition.

Treatment:

  • If you’re treated under supervision at home, the healthcare professional helping you will discuss with you changes you should make to your diet.
  • Your dietary plans will depend on your individual circumstances, but it’s likely you’ll be advised to gradually increase your intake of energy (calories), protein, carbohydrates, fluids, and vitamins and minerals. The aim is to reduce your risk of developing complications, such as infections, and to avoid hospital admission.

Heart Attack- Causes, Symptoms and facts about heart attack(Myocardial Infarction)

A heart attack happens when your heart muscle is starved of oxygen-rich blood. This causes damage to your heart muscle. A lack of blood to the heart may seriously damage the heart muscle and can be life-threatening. When plaque builds up in the arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis. The buildup of plaque occurs over many years.
Eventually, an area of plaque can rupture (break open) inside of an artery. This causes a blood clot to form on the plaque’s surface. If the clot becomes large enough, it can mostly or completely block blood flow through a coronary artery. Almost two-thirds of women who die suddenly of coronary heart disease have no previous symptoms, according to the CDC. “Some people will say it was out of the blue, and that’s probably most people,” said Dr. Sharonne Hayes, director of the Women’s Heart Clinic at the Mayo Clinic.
heart attack
  • Early reopening of blocked coronary arteries reduces the amount of damage to the heart and improves the prognosis for a heart attack.
  • Medical treatment for heart attacks may include antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and clot dissolving drugs as well as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta blockers, and oxygen. Muscle continues to die for six to eight hours at which time the heart attack usually is “complete.” The dead heart muscle is eventually replaced by scar tissue.

 

  • Sadly, not everyone survives a heart attack. But things are changing. Research helps us improve the treatment and prevention of heart attacks. That’s why we fund scientists, like BHF Professor Steve Watson, to help us understand more about how we can treat heart attacks. Many people are familiar with the “Hollywood heart attack,” where a middle-aged man clutches his chest and falls over dead. In reality, symptoms can wax and wane, Hayes said.

 

  • Some people who simply report not feeling well or feeling fatigued go on to have a heart attack hours later. Sometimes, the chest pain is there, but the nausea is much more prominent so people may mistake the symptoms for the flu.
heart attack

Symptoms:

Not all heart attacks begin with the sudden, crushing chest pain that often is shown on TV or in the movies, or other common symptoms such as chest discomfort. The symptoms of a heart attack can vary from person to person. Some people can have few symptoms and are surprised to learn they’ve had a heart attack. If you’ve already had a heart attack, your symptoms may not be the same for another one.
  • Discomfort, pressure, heaviness
  • Pain in the chest, arm, or below the breastbone
  • Discomfort radiating to the back, jaw
  • indigestion
  • choking feeling
  • Sweating, nausea, vomiting
  • dizziness
  • Extreme weakness, anxiety
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeats
One cannot overemphasize the importance of seeking prompt medical attention in the presence of new symptoms that suggest a heart attack. Early diagnosis and treatment saves lives, and delays in reaching medical assistance can be fatal. A delay in treatment can lead to permanently reduced function of the heart due to more extensive damage to the heart muscle. Death also may occur as a result of the sudden onset of arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation.

Causes:

  • Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of heart attacks.
    CHD is a condition in which the major blood vessels that supply the heart get clogged up with deposits of cholesterol, known as plaques.

 

  • Before a heart attack, one of the plaques ruptures (bursts), causing a blood clot to develop at the site of the rupture. The clot may block the supply of blood to the heart, triggering a heart attack.

Facts:

  • Every 20 seconds a heart attack occurs and a heart attack fatality occurs about every minute.
  • Women under the age of 50 are twice as likely to die of a heart attack than men of the same age, according to the Women’s Heart Foundation (often because of ignoring early warnings).
  • From 1983 to 1993, heart attack deaths fell about 30% overall but have not fallen nearly as much for women.
  • Studies show the most common time for a heart attack to occur is Monday morning.
  • Saturday morning ranks second. Another common time is during the early morning hours, when blood platelets are stickier.
  • Deaths from cardiovascular diseases in women exceed the total number of deaths caused by the next 16 causes.
    60% of women erroneously listed cancer as the leading cause of death among women. Deaths from all cancers in the USA are half as common as deaths from cardiovascular disease.
  • More than one million people in the United States suffer from a heart attack each year.
  • Heart attacks are 27% more likely to happen around your birthday.  They are also most likely on Christmas Day, December 26th, and New Year’s Day.
  • Coronary heart disease alone costs the United States $108.9 billion each year.  This total includes the cost of health care services, medications, and lost productivity.
  • Drinking a diet soda a day increase your chance of getting a heart attack.  Read more about the CUMC study here.  Fruit-infused seltzer water is a good alternative to cool off and satisfy your sweet tooth.
  • Most importantly, hospital admissions of elderly Americans for heart attacks are on the decline mostly due to the accomplishment of preventive medicine, such as smoking cessation programs.
  • Costs related to heart attack exceed 60 billion dollars per year, which includes charges for hospitalization, doctors and prescription drugs.
  • Women have different heart attack symptoms (nausea, indigestion, and shoulder aches) compared to classic chest pain that men might experience.  25% of all heart attacks (especially those in women) go unrecognized.
  • Almost 14 million Americans have a history of heart attack or angina.

Amnesia-causes, symptoms,diagnosis and facts about amnesia

Amnesia is generally a memory disorder. The person suffering from this disease forget things likewise facts, information and experiences. Isolated memory loss doesn’t affect a person’s intelligence, general knowledge, awareness, attention span, judgment, personality or identity. People with amnesia usually can understand written and spoken words and can learn skills such as bike riding or piano playing. They may understand they have a memory disorder.
amnesia
memory loss problem
Though having no sense of who you are is a common plot device in movies and television, real-life amnesia generally doesn’t cause a loss of self-identity. You may be worried that someone you care for has dementia. However, bear in mind around 40% of people over 65 have some type of memory problem, and only 15% will develop dementia each year. Infantile amnesia is the label given to the common inability of adults to remember the earliest years of their childhood, typically from birth until around four years old.
“Entering or exiting through a doorway serves as an ‘event boundary’ in the mind, which separates episodes of activity and files them away,” Gabriel Radvansky, a psychologist at the University of Notre Dame, told Live Science in a 2011 interview. “Recalling the decision or activity that was made in a different room is difficult because it has been compartmentalized.”
Many kinds of amnesia are associated with damage to the hippocampus and related areas of the brain which are used in the encoding, storage and retrieval of memories. If there is a blockage in the pathways along which information travels during the processes of memory encoding or retrieval, or if whole regions of the brain are missing or damaged, then the brain may not be able to form new memories or retrieve some old ones.

Kinds of memories:

Memory loss has a wide range of possible causes, depending on the type of memory loss.
Doctors classify memories as either:
  • immediate memories – such as sounds, which are only stored for a few seconds
  • short-term or recent memories – such as telephone numbers, which stay in your memory for 15 to 20 seconds; the brain can store about seven chunks of short-term information at any time
  • long-term or remote memories – more permanent memories, which have been reinforced because you’ve repeatedly gone over them in your mind

Cause:

Amnesia can be caused by damage to areas of the brain that are vital for memory processing. Unlike a temporary episode of memory loss (transient global amnesia), amnesia can be permanent. Amnesia may result either from organic or neurological causes (damage to the brain through physical injury, neurological disease or the use of certain drugs), or from functional or psychogenic causes (psychological factors, such as mental disorder, post-traumatic stress or psychological defence mechanisms).
Your hippocampus is a part of the brain and limbic system responsible for memory. Its activities include forming memories, organizing memories, and retrieving them when needed. Its cells are some of your brain’s most energy-hungry and fragile. They’re most easily disrupted by anoxia and other threats such toxins.
When your hippocampus is impaired, you will have difficulty forming new memories. If your hippocampus is damaged in both halves of your brain, you can develop complete anterograde amnesia.

Symptoms:

  • Inability to learn new information
  • Inability to remember past events and previously familiar information
  • Uncoordinated movements, sometimes tremors (neurological problems)
  • Partial loss of memory
  • Total loss of memory
  • Failure to recognize faces
  • Confusion or disorientation
  • Problems with short-term memory
  • Inability to recognize places
  • Depression

Diagnosis:

Initially, a doctor will need to rule out other possible causes of memory loss, including dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, or a brain tumor. The doctor will require a detailed medical history – this may be difficult if the patient does not remember things, so family members or caregivers may also have to be present.
A doctor will need the patient’s permission to talk about their medical details with somebody else.
Amnesia from dementia is often incurable. However, your doctor may prescribe medications to support learning and memory.
If you have persistent memory loss, your doctor may recommend occupational therapy. This type of therapy can help you learn new information and memory skills for daily living. Your therapist can also teach you how to use memory aids and techniques for organizing information to make it easier to retrieve. In some cases, amnesia goes away without treatment. In other cases, your doctor may prescribe medication, occupational therapy, or other treatments.

How to deal with a poor memory?

  • Keep everyday items, such as car keys, in the same place and try to do things in the same order each time.
  • Use an alarm to help you remember to do something in the future, such as taking something out of the oven.
  • Repeat important information you need to remember back to someone.
  • Write information down, and keep paper and a pencil near the phone.
  • Keep a diary at home as well as at work to remind you to do daily tasks.
Facts:
  • The most common form of amnesia is that caused by post Retrograde amnesia sufferers may partially regain memory later.
  • This type of amnesia is what causes people to forget their past and who they are.
  • Transient global amnesia is another rare form of amnesia that often occurs when there is a vascular disease.
  • Amnesia can be short term or long term.
  • Amnesia may not develop until hours after the injury.
  • One of the facts about amnesia is that there are many different causes.
  • Strokes, brain inflammation,  seizures, and traumatic events are just some of the things that can cause amnesia.
  • In a 2013 report of a strange case in the journal Frontiers in Neurology, researchers described a woman who had musical hallucinations of song that she didn’t recognize, but others did.

Famous Persons having this problem:

  • President Ronald Reagan was one of the most unforgettable presidents in recent memory. But when Reagan was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease in 1994, some people began questioning when the conservative icon’s mental deterioration actually began.
  • Reagan was known to experience memory lapses with names during his time in office, one time accidentally referring to Vice President George Bush as Prime Minister Bush, according to Time. Former White House correspondent Lesley Stahl recounted in her book “Reporting Live” that in an interview with Reagan in 1986, the president didn’t seem to remember who she was. Stahl says she came close to reporting that Reagan was senile before he regained his alertness by the end of the interview.
  • In December 1926, Christie became front-page news after she mysteriously disappeared without a trace from her home in England. Eleven days later, Christie was found in a fugue state, living in a spa hotel in Harrogate, England, living under a pseudonym.
  • Doctors initially diagnosed Christie with suffering a brief lapse of amnesia, but others were more skeptical about the author’s disappearance. Christie’s husband Archie had asked her for a divorce around that time, and the same night that Agatha had disappeared, Archie had left to be with his mistress.  Regardless, Christie’s 11-day disappearance in the 1920s continues to baffle people to this day.

Adverse impact of alcohol on your body you must know

Alcohol reliance is an addictive issue that is described by the failure to control the utilization or amount of alcohol expended, the need to devour progressively bigger measures of alcohol to accomplish a similar level of inebriation, and the steady and persistent drive to expend alcohol. Proceeded with utilization of alcohol impacts about all aspects of the body.
On the off chance that you have ever observed a man who has had a lot to drink, you realize that alcohol is a medication that effectsly affects the body, and the impacts change from individual to individual. Individuals who drink may be the “life of the gathering” or they may get to be distinctly tragic and sagging. Their discourse may slur and they may experience difficulty strolling. Everything relies on upon the measure of alcohol devoured, a man’s history with alcohol and a man’s identity.
alcohol
At the point when a man devours more alcohol than their body can proficiently metabolize than the measure of alcohol in their circulation system gets to be distinctly lifted. The measure of alcohol in a man’s circulation system is alluded to as their blood alcohol level. The higher a man’s blood alcohol level is the more outrageous the impacts of alcohol on the body. How quick a man’s blood alcohol level raises and the impacts it has on them fluctuates significantly relying upon various things, including weight, age, sexual orientation, body creation, general wellbeing, and the nearness of different medications or pharmaceuticals.

Alcohol can be made by three unique strategies:

Aging of organic product or grain blends (See How Beer Works for points of interest). This is frequently trailed by refining of matured organic product or grain blends (Spirits, for example, bourbon, rum, vodka and gin are refined.)
Substance adjustment of fossil powers, for example, oil, normal gas or coal (modern alcohol)
Substance blend of hydrogen with carbon monoxide (methanol or wood alcohol)

Wellbeing impacts

  • Weight pick up:
Alcohol is high in calories. Weight for weight, the alcohol in a drink contains nearly the same number of calories as fat. The normal container of wine contains 600 calories while four pints of normal quality ale contain 640.
Liver Excess drinking causes the liver to gather fat, known as greasy liver. Greasy liver can prompt to irritation of the liver which is known as hepatitis. A liver that has turned out to be stopped up with fat can not perform at an effective level which influences whatever remains of the body’s wholesome wellbeing. Over the top drinking can likewise prompt to cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of the liver happens when liver cells turn out to be damaged to the point that they can’t recover. When cirrhosis has happened if a man does not quit drinking they will encounter liver disappointment which is conceivably lethal.
  • Emotional wellness:
Individuals may imagine that alcohol helps them adapt to troublesome circumstances and feelings, and that it diminishes push or alleviates uneasiness, yet alcohol is in actuality related with a scope of psychological well-being issues including gloom, nervousness, chance taking conduct, identity issue and schizophrenia.
Alcohol has additionally been connected to suicide. The Mental Health Foundation reports that:
65% of suicides have been connected to exorbitant drinking;
70% of men who take their own particular life drink alcohol before doing as such;
just about 33% of suicides among youngsters happen while the individual is inebriated.
  • Pancreas:
Alcohol causes the pancreas to create harmful substances that can in the long run prompt to pancreatitis, a perilous irritation and swelling of the veins in the pancreas that averts appropriate absorption.
Heart Heavy drinking can be no picnic for the heart. It causes cardiomyopathy which is the extending and hanging of heart muscle, myocarditis which is aggravation of the heart muscle and arrythmia which is sporadic pulse. At the point when alcohol is devoured it raises circulatory strain and blood lipids. This builds the danger of heart assault, hypertension, raised cholesterol and stroke.
  • Focal Nervous System:
It effects the focal sensory system bringing about many here and now impacts like slurred discourse, obscured vision, debilitated muscles, diminished response time and hindered memory. At the point when alcohol is expended unreasonably it can cause cell harm in the focal sensory system making a condition known as neuropathy. Neuropathy causes rotating sentiments of shortcoming, smoldering, torment and deadness in the feet and hands.
Bosoms Alcohol utilization raises the hazard for bosom disease. Look into recommends that even to such an extent as one drink a day may increment of individual’s hazard for bosom disease. Estrogen levels are raised when alcohol is devoured and expanded estrogen level is a known hazard calculate for creating bosom growth.
At the point when a man beverages an alcoholic drink, around 20 percent of the alcohol is caught up in the stomach and around 80 percent is invested in the small digestive system.
  • How quick the alcohol is consumed relies on a few things:
  • The centralization of alcohol in the drink – The more noteworthy the fixation, the quicker the ingestion.
  • The sort of drink – Carbonated refreshments tend to accelerate the retention of alcohol.
  • Regardless of whether the stomach is full or discharge – Food backs off alcohol retention.
  • After ingestion, the alcohol enters the circulation system and breaks up in the water of the blood. The blood conveys the alcohol all through the body. The alcohol from the blood then enters and breaks up in the water inside every tissue of the body (with the exception of fat tissue, as alcohol can’t disintegrate in fat). Once inside the tissues, alcohol applies its consequences for the body. The watched impacts depend specifically on the blood alcohol focus (BAC), which is identified with the measure of alcohol devoured. The BAC can rise essentially inside 20 minutes in the wake of having a drink.

Leprosy-Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Facts about leprosy

  • Leprosy is one of the viral disease that causes severe, disfiguring skin sores and nerve damage in the arms and legs. Chances are, the mention of leprosy brings to mind skin falling from the bone and people cast away into quarantined colonies to prevent outbreaks. While this may have been a reality for those in the past, modern technology and treatments have made this disease a little less scary.
  • The goal of the WHO by the end of 2015 is to reduce the rate of new cases with grade-2 disabilities worldwide by at least 35%. This will be carried out by enforcing activities to decrease the delay in diagnosing the disease and actuate treatment with multidrug therapy.
  • Leprosy has been in the news lately — but is it coming back, or has the disease always been around and people just didn’t talk about it? “In 2000, it was declared ‘eliminated as a public health problem’ at a global level and by 2005 it was eliminated in many countries,” said Dr. Paul Saunderson, medical director of American Leprosy Missions. “This is why leprosy may receive less news coverage and certainly that could be the case for developed countries. However, there are still 14 countries worldwide that are highly endemic for leprosy or have pockets which are highly endemic and new infections still occur in about 100 countries.
  • Leprosy is actually not that contagious. You can catch it only if you come into close and repeated contact with nose and mouth droplets from someone with untreated leprosy. Children are more likely to get leprosy than adults. Normally, a person’s immune system can prevent infection.
  • Children are more at risk for contracting leprosy than adults, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). The social and psychological effects of leprosy, as well as its highly visible debilities and sequelae (as seen in the image below), have resulted in a historical stigma associated with leprosy. To minimize the prejudice against those with leprosy, the condition is also known as Hansen disease, named after G.A. Hansen, who is credited with the 1873 discovery of M leprae. This mycobacterium grows extremely slowly and has not been successfully cultured in vitro.

Causes:

It is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a rod-shaped bacterium. The disease is also called Hansen’s disease, after a Norwegian doctor, Armauer Hansen. Hansen was the first to discover the bacterium that causes leprosy and published a paper on it in 1873, according to an article in the Indian Journal of Dermatology.

Symptoms:

  • muscle weakness
  • numbness in the hands, arms, feet, and legs
  • Ulcers on the soles of feet
  • Thick, stiff or dry skin
  • Severe pain
  • Eye problems that may lead to blindness
  • skin lesions

Treatment:

  • People once were isolated from the rest of the population to prevent the spread of leprosy. That isn’t the case today. “This is because in 1980s multidrug therapy was introduced that provided a rapid and complete cure for leprosy,” said Saunderson. “Until then, people who were diagnosed or who had symptoms of leprosy were often banished from their communities to live in leprosaria [leper asylums]. Despite this cure for leprosy, the stigma of leprosy, especially for those people who have been diagnosed late and have developed visible impairments, is still considerable. Although multidrug therapy is very good once it is started, the incubation period of leprosy is very long (several years), so transmission still continues before a person is diagnosed and put on treatment.”
  • Treatment depends on the type of leprosy that you have. Antibiotics are used to treat the infection. Long-term treatment with two or more antibiotics is recommended, usually from six months to a year. People with severe leprosy may need to take antibiotics longer. Antibiotics cannot treat the nerve damage.
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs are used to control nerve pain and damage related to it.  This may include steroids, such as prednisone.

Facts:

  • It is a curable disease with the use of multidrug therapy (MDT). In 1991, the World Health Assembly passed a resolution to eliminate leprosy as a public-health problem by the year 2000. The elimination of leprosy was defined as a prevalence rate of less than one case per 10,000 people in all countries, focused primarily on those where leprosy was commonly found.
  • Although not highly infectious, it is transmitted via droplets, from the nose and mouth, during close and frequent contacts with untreated cases.
    Untreated, It can cause progressive and permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs and eyes.
  • In the year 2000, the global elimination of leprosy, according to the prevalence rate, was achieved. With assistance from the World Health Organization (WHO), MDT has been distributed free to all patients with leprosy since 1995. Though it  is still endemic in a few developing countries (primarily in the tropics), there has been a dramatic worldwide decrease in the prevalence of the disease due to this successful public-health initiative. Over the past 20 years, close to 16 million leprosy patients have been cured, and the prevalence rate of the disease has decreased by 90%.
  • According to official reports received from 138 countries from all WHO regions, the global registered prevalence of leprosy at the end of 2015 was 176 176 cases (0.2 cases per 10 000 people)1. The number of new cases reported globally in 2015 was 211 973 (2.9 new cases per 100 000 people). In 2014, 213 899 new cases were reported, and in 2013, 215 656 new cases.
  • Official figures from 138 countries from 6 WHO regions show the global registered prevalence of leprosy to be at 176 176 cases at the end of 2015. During the same year, 211 973 new cases were reported.
  • At the beginning of 2010, the registered prevalence of leprosy in the world was 211,903 cases, and 244,796 new cases were detected during 2009, as reported by 141 countries (World Health Organization [WHO]). Since the 1980s, when the WHO initiated its Leprosy Elimination Project, more than 14 million cases have been cured. However, the number of new cases being detected annually is raising the unanswered questions about the infection source, transmission, and incubation period of leprosy.

Thyroid- Causes, Symptoms, Preventions and facts about thyroid gland

Thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck lies above your collarbone. These can range from a small, harmless goiter (enlarged gland) that needs no treatment to life-threatening cancer. The most common  problems involve abnormal production of thyroid hormones. Women are more likely than men to have thyroid diseases, especially right after pregnancy and after menopause. The glands manufactures hormones that regulate the body’s metabolism (the process of creating and using energy).
thyroid gland
There are several different disorders that can arise when the thyroid produces too much hormone (hyperthyroidism) or not enough (hypothyroidism).
Thyroid disease is more common than diabetes or heart disease. Thyroid disease is a fact of life for as many as 30 million Americans – and more than half of those people remain undiagnosed. Women are five times more likely than men to suffer from hypothyroidism (when the gland is not producing enough thyroid hormone). Aging is just one risk factor for hypothyroidism.
The thyroid gland is located below the Adam’s apple wrapped around the trachea (windpipe). A thin area of tissue in the gland’s middle, known as the isthmus, joins the two thyroid lobes on each side. The thyroid uses iodine to produce vital hormones. Thyroxine, also known as T4, is the primary hormone produced by the gland. Changes in weight can signal an abnormal function of the thyroid gland. Low levels of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism) can cause weight gain, while unexpected weight loss can signal that too much thyroid hormone is being produced (hyperthyroidism). Hypothyroidism is much more common than hyperthyroidism. Changes in weight can signal an abnormal function of the thyroid gland.
When considering thyroid disease, doctors ask two main questions: First, is the thyroid gland inappropriately producing an abnormal amount of thyroid hormone? And second, is there a structural change in the thyroid, such as a lump—known as a nodule —or an enlargement—known as a goiter? Though one of these characteristics does not necessarily imply that the other is present, many thyroid disorders display both.

Thyroid problems include:

  • Goiter:
It is the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Goiters are often removed because of cosmetic reasons or, more commonly, because they compress other vital structures of the neck including the trachea and the esophagus making breathing and swallowing difficult. A goiter can occur with either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. It can sometimes also result from tumors or nodules that develop within the thyroid gland.
  • Hyperthyroidism:
When your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones than your body needs. Many times the situation will suggest that all three methods are appropriate, while other circumstances will dictate a single best therapeutic option. Surgery is the least common treatment selected for hyperthyroidism.
  • Hypothyroidism:
When your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism can even be associated with pregnancy. Treatment for all types of hypothyroidism is usually straightforward.
  • Thyroid cancer:
Thyroid cancer is far more common among adult women than men or youth. About 2/3 of cases occur in people under age 55. There are different kinds of thyroid cancer, depending upon the specific cell type within the thyroid that has become cancerous. Most cases of thyroid cancer have a good prognosis and high survival rates, especially when diagnosed in its early stages.
  • Thyroid nodules:
Lumps in the thyroid gland. Thyroid nodules are growths that form on or in the thyroid gland. The causes are not always known but can include iodine deficiency and Hashimoto’s disease. The nodules can be solid or fluid-filled. Most are benign, but they can also be cancerous in a small percentage of cases.
  • Thyroiditis:
It is the swelling of the thyroid. Thyroiditis can present with a number of symptoms such as fever and pain, but it can also present as subtle findings of hypo or hyper-thyroidism.

Why this problem more in women?

  • One in eight women will develop thyroid problems during her lifetime.1 In women, these diseases can cause: Your thyroid helps control your menstrual cycle. Too much or too little thyroid hormone can make your periods very light, heavy, or irregular. This disease also can cause your periods to stop for several months or longer, a condition called amenorrhea. If your body’s immune system causes thyroid disease, other glands, including your ovaries, may be involved. This can lead to early menopause (before age 40).
  • When this disease affects the menstrual cycle, it also affects ovulation. This can make it harder for you to get pregnant. These problems during pregnancy can cause health problems for the mother and the baby.  The sole function of the thyroid is to make thyroid hormone. This hormone has an effect on nearly all tissues of the body where it increases cellular activity. The function of the thyroid, therefore, is to regulate the body’s metabolic. Pregnancy-related hormones raise the level of thyroid hormones in the blood.
  • It can be harder to diagnose thyroid problems during pregnancy because of the change in hormone levels that normally happen during pregnancy. But it is especially important to check for problems before getting pregnant and during pregnancy. Uncontrolled hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can cause problems for both mother and baby.

Symptoms:

  • Extreme fatigue
  • Stiffness in joints and muscles
  • Menorrhagia
  • excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding
  • Depression
  • confusion in thought process
  • Feeling cold all the time
  • Repeated bouts of constipation
  • Dry skin

Facts:

  • Thyroid hormone production is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland (located in the brain). Communication with the brain maintains optimal balance in the body.
  • Dopamine, a neurotransmitter, stimulates the hypothalamus to release TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and thereby influences T3 production. Dopamine is made from the amino acid tyrosine, so consuming good quality proteins is important to both thyroid and brain health.
  • By weeks 6–7 the characteristic bilobed structure can be distinguished. At about this time, the gland becomes detached from the pharynx and the developing tissue mass descends into the neck.
  • The natural storage of the radioiodine in the follicles delays clearance of the ingested radionuclide and concentrates the damaging radiation on the thyroid. In Belarus and the Ukraine this resulted in a major increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in the 1990s amongst children born before the accident.
  • Stress is a major factor that adversely affects the thyroid.
  • There are many thousands of follicles, and their individual sizes vary considerably, ranging in diameter from 20 to 100 μm (2/100–1/10 mm).
  • Hypothyroidism is an underproduction of thyroid hormone. The most common form is an autoimmune disease called Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
  • In Hashimoto’s, the body sees the thyroid hormone as foreign and attacks it. Symptoms include fatigue, sensitivity to cold, excess weight gain, poor circulation, dry skin, loss of hair, depression, and poor digestion.

Hepatitis- Causes, Symptoms, Preventions and Facts about hepatitis

Hepatitis means injury to the liver with inflammation of the liver cells. There are five main types of hepatitis and the type is commonly determined by a laboratory test. These include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol. Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease that occurs when your body makes antibodies against your liver tissue. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are 4.4 million Americans currently living with chronic hepatitis. Many more people don’t even know that they have it.
hepatitis virus
There are 5 main hepatitis viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D and E. These 5 types are of greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death they cause and the potential for outbreaks and epidemic spread. In particular, types B and C lead to chronic disease in hundreds of millions of people and, together, are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer. Hepatitis A is a milder version of the disease, and hepatitis C and D are more severe. Treatment options vary depending on what form of hepatitis you have and what caused the infection. You can prevent some forms of hepatitis through immunizations or lifestyle precautions.
Many illnesses and conditions can cause inflammation of the liver, for example, drugs, alcohol, chemicals, and autoimmune diseases. Many viruses, for example, the virus causing mononucleosis and the cytomegalovirus can inflame the liver. Most viruses, however, do not attack primarily the liver; the liver is just one of several organs that the viruses affect. When most doctors speak of viral hepatitis, they are using the definition that means hepatitis caused by a few specific viruses that primarily attack the liver and are responsible for about half of all human hepatitis.

Different hepatitis viruses:

  • Hepatitis A virus:
It is present in the faeces of infected persons and is most often transmitted through consumption of contaminated water or food. Certain sex practices can also spread HAV. Infections are in many cases mild, with most people making a full recovery and remaining immune from further HAV infections. However, HAV infections can also be severe and life threatening. Most people in areas of the world with poor sanitation have been infected with this virus. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HAV.
  • Hepatitis B virus:
This type derives from an infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). This type is transmitted through puncture wounds or contact with infectious body fluids, such as blood, saliva, or semen. Injection drug use, having sex with an infected partner, or sharing razors with an infected person increase your risk of getting hepatitis B. It’s estimated by the CDC that 1.25 million people in the United States have chronic hepatitis B and 350 million people worldwide live with this chronic disease.
  • Hepatitis C virus:
Hepatitis C is usually spread through direct contact with the blood of a person who has the disease. It is caused by the virus HCV (hepatitis C Virus). The liver can swell and become damaged. In hepatitis C, unlike hepatitis B, liver cancer risk is only increased in people with cirrhosis and only 20% of hep C patients get cirrhosis. Feces is never a route of transmission in hepatitis C. Donated blood is also tested for hepatitis C. Experts say that more effort is needed to better educate the health care community about the importance of strict sterile techniques when using any type of anesthesia.
  • Hepatitis D virus:
This is also called delta hepatitis. Hepatitis virus D is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV). HDV is contracted through puncture wounds or contact with infected blood. Hepatitis D is a rare form of hepatitis that occurs in conjunction with hepatitis B infection. It’s very uncommon in the United States.
  • Hepatitis E virus:
Hepatitis virus (HEV) is mostly transmitted through consumption of contaminated water or food. HEV is a common cause of hepatitis outbreaks in developing parts of the world and is increasingly recognized as an important cause of disease in developed countries. Safe and effective vaccines to prevent HEV infection have been developed but are not widely available.
Cause:
It may be caused by drugs, alcohol use, or certain medical conditions. But in most cases, it’s caused by a virus. This is known as viral hepatitis, and the most common forms are hepatitis A, B, and C.
Symptoms:
  • Diarrhea
  • Dark-colored urine
  • pale bowel movements
  • Abdominal pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • vomiting
  • Jaundice
  • fatigue
  • flu-like symptoms
  • The utilization of vaccines is a second key to preventing hepatitis. Vaccinations are available to prevent the development of hepatitis A and B. Experts are currently developing vaccines against hepatitis C, D, and E.

Facts:

  •  People born between 1945 and 1965 have a 1 in 30 chance of having hepatitis C, says Graham, though they may not know it. It’s believed many were infected during the 1970s and ’80s, when infection rates were highest, the CDC says.
    An estimated 800,000 to 1.4 million people in the US have chronic HBV infection.
  •  In fact, more than twice as many Americans are infected with hepatitis C compared to HIV. And among people who have HIV from using intravenous drugs, 50-90% also have hepatitis C.
  • HCV  virus is diverse and includes six commonly-seen types. About 75 percent of hepatitis C cases here are genotype 1, and 12 percent are genotype 2, with fewer cases of genotypes 3 to 6.
  • Of every 100 people with a chronic hepatitis C infection, 5 to 20 will eventually develop cirrhosis, according to the CDC. One to 5 percent will die of either cirrhosis or liver cancer.
  • Hepatitis B is a sexually-transmitted disease but can also be transmitted during normal household contact with an infected person.
  •  Infants born to hepatitis B-infected women have a very high chance of getting the infection from their mothers unless they receive their first hepatitis B vaccination and immune globulin (IG) at birth.
  • About 15-25% of people with acute hepatitis C will clear the infection without treatment. These people will not progress to chronic hepatitis C and may never know they were sick.
  • The risk of hepatitis A infection is associated with a lack of safe water, and poor sanitation and hygiene (such as dirty hands).
  • Epidemics can be explosive and cause substantial economic loss.

Asthma- Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and facts about asthma

Asthma is a chronic disease involving the airways in the lungs. These airways, or bronchial tubes, allow air to come in and out of the lungs.  If you have asthma, the inside walls of your airways become sore and swollen. That makes them very sensitive, and they may react strongly to things that you are allergic to or find irritating. When your airways react, they get narrower and your lungs get less air. A typical person with asthma may take a preventer inhaler every day (to prevent symptoms developing) and use a reliever inhaler as and when required (if symptoms flare up). This leaflet gives a general overview of asthma. There are other separate leaflets in this series.
asthma
Several studies suggest that teens and adults who smoke are more likely to get asthma. And there’s strong evidence that secondhand smoke plays a role as well. Kids who are around people who smoke have a higher chance of getting asthma early in life. When your asthma symptoms become worse than usual, it’s called an asthma attack. Severe asthma attacks may require emergency care, and they can be fatal.
The number of people with asthma has been going up steadily in the U.S. for decades. Some researchers suggest it’s because of better hygiene: The theory is that fewer childhood infections lead to under-developed immune systems, which means a greater risk of asthma. It might also be because we use more household cleaning sprays, we don’t use as much aspirin, or we have lower levels of vitamin D.
If you have asthma your airways are always inflamed. They become even more swollen and the muscles around the airways can tighten when something triggers your symptoms. This makes it difficult for air to move in and out of the lungs, causing symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and/or chest tightness.
Typically, it develops during childhood, but it can affect you at any age. People who have allergies or a parent or close family member with asthma are more likely to have the condition. More boys have asthma than girls, but it’s more common in women than in men. Asthma symptoms affect an estimated 26 million Americans and are one of the leading causes of work and school absences.

Causes:

Allergens are substances that cause no problem in most people but produce an abnormal reaction in some. When someone who is sensitive to an allergen is exposed to it, his or her immune system “sees” it as a foreign substance and releases chemicals to deal with it. For people with asthma, those chemicals can cause an asthma attack — meaning that their airways become constricted, they find it difficult to breathe and they may experience coughing or wheezing.

Symptoms:

  • Chest tightness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing
  • Coughing

Diagnosis:

  • Your doctor may recommend other tests if he or she needs more information to make a diagnosis. Tests may include:
    A lung test called spirometry measures how much air you can breathe in and out. The results will help your doctor decide whether you have asthma and how severe it is. He may also suggest allergy testing to pinpoint some of your triggers.
  • Allergy testing to find out which allergens affect you, if any.
  • A test to measure how sensitive your airways are. This is called a bronchoprovocation (brong-KO-prav-eh-KA-shun) test. Using spirometry, this test repeatedly measures your lung function during physical activity or after you receive increasing doses of cold air or a special chemical to breathe in.
  • A test to show whether you have another condition with the same symptoms as asthma, such as reflux disease, vocal cord dysfunction, or sleep apnea.
  • A chest x ray or an EKG (electrocardiogram). These tests will help find out whether a foreign object or other disease may be causing your symptoms.

Treatments:

  • Inhalers:Most people with asthma are treated with inhalers. Inhalers deliver a small dose of medicine directly to the airways. The dose is enough to treat the airways. However, the amount of medicine that gets into the rest of your body is small so side-effects are unlikely, or minor. There are various inhaler devices made by different companies. Different ones suit different people. A doctor or nurse will advise on the different types
  • Quick-Relief Medicines:
    Quick-relief medicines relieve asthma symptoms when they occur. The most common of these are inhaled short-acting B2-agonists – bronchodilators that quickly relax tight muscles around the airways, allowing air to flow through them. The quick-relief inhaler should be used when asthma symptoms are first noticed, but should not be used more than 2 days a week. Most people carry the quick-relief inhaler with them at all times. Quick-relief medicines usually do not reduce inflammation and therefore should not be used as a replacement for long-term control medicines.
  • Steroid tablets:
    A short course of steroid tablets (such as prednisolone) is sometimes needed to ease a severe or prolonged attack of asthma. Steroid tablets are good at reducing the inflammation in the airways. For example, a severe attack may occur if you have a cold or a chest infection.

Facts about asthma:

  • People with cat allergies react to a protein in the saliva, skin, and urine. This protein builds up in the air or on surfaces and can trigger asthma attacks in about one-fourth of people with asthma.
  • According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The current obesity epidemic may be contributing too: Kids who are overweight and have elevated levels of C-reactive protein (a marker of inflammation in the body) tend to have more severe asthma, according to a recent study from Duke Children’s Hospital, in Durham, North Carolina.
  • The strongest risk factors for developing asthma are exposure to indoor allergens such as house dust mites in bedding, carpets and stuffed furniture; pollution and pet dander; outdoor allergens such as pollens and moulds; tobacco smoke and chemical irritants in the workplace.
  • Asthma is primarily treated with medicines taken via inhalers.  Usually with a combination of preventer and reliever inhalers.
  • WHO estimates show that 235 million people currently suffer from asthma.
  • Everyone with asthma should have a reliever inhaler. Reliever inhalers are usually blue.  They are taken when asthma symptoms occur.
  • Allergic conditions are the most common health issues affecting children in the U.S.
  • Asthma is often under-diagnosed and under-treated, creating a substantial burden to individuals and families and possibly restricting individuals’ activities for a lifetime.
  • Asthma occurs in all countries regardless of level of development. Over 80% of asthma deaths occur in low and lower-middle income countries. For effective control, it is essential to make medications affordable and available, especially for low-income families.
  • In 2012, 11.1 million people were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis.